The different types of entry barrier in seaports are analysed and the policies and practices to reduce them are discussed in this paper. In most seaports, economic, regulatory, and geographical entry barriers are substantial and increasing in complexity as ports become embedded in supply chains and multilayered networks with multiple entry-levels. Various entry barriers in seaports are identified through an overview of the relevant literature and their presence is confirmed by empirical data describing them. The case is then made for lowering these barriers. This would be desirable from an economic point of view, since lower barriers strengthen the contestability of markets and increase the level of intra-port competition. The latter might yield substantial benefits, such as fostering specialization and preventing the abuse of market power. Finally, low entry barriers would facilitate the faster implementation of new technologies and business models. In the third part of the analysis, policies and practices designed to reduce entry barriers are examined. The implications are discussed of current national and supranational (EU) policy initiatives aimed to liberalize service provision in seaports. Other (de)regulatory policies that could contribute to the reduction of entry barriers are analysed.
|Number of pages||14|
|Journal||Maritime Policy and Management|
|Publication status||Published - 2007|