The enzymes glucose oxidase and transglutaminase are frequently used to improve the breadmaking performance of wheat flours, as they have the ability to considerably alter the viscoelastic nature of the gluten network. To evaluate a flour’s breadmaking performance, rheological tests offer an attractive framework. In this study, the rheological impact of adding glucose oxidase or transglutaminase to wheat flour dough is investigated by means of linear oscillatory shear tests, creep-recovery shear tests and startup extensional tests. The former tests reveal that the enzymes render the dough stiffer and enhance its elastic character, until saturation is reached. In the breadmaking process, the use of excessive amounts of enzyme is known to be counterproductive. The strain-hardening index clearly reveals this overcross-linking effect. Besides enzymes, the gluten network can also be reinforced by adding supplementary gluten, which was indeed found to enhance the extent of strain-hardening.
- Dough rheology
- Glucose oxidase