Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) show great promise for flexible, low-cost, and low-voltage sensors for aqueous solutions. The majority of OECT devices are made using the polymer blend poly(ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), in which PEDOT is intrinsically doped due to inclusion of PSS. Because of this intrinsic doping, PEDOT:PSS OECTs generally operate in depletion mode, which results in a higher power consumption and limits stability. Here, a straightforward method to de-dope PEDOT:PSS using commercially available amine-based molecular de-dopants to achieve stable enhancement-mode OECTs is presented. The enhancement-mode OECTs show mobilities near that of pristine PEDOT:PSS (≈2 cm2 V−1 s−1) with stable operation over 1000 on/off cycles. The electron and proton exchange among PEDOT, PSS, and the molecular de-dopants are characterized to reveal the underlying chemical mechanism of the threshold voltage shift to negative voltages. Finally, the effect of the de-doping on the microstructure of the spin-cast PEDOT:PSS films is investigated.
- aliphatic amines
- enhancement-mode transistor
- molecular doping
- organic electrochemical transistor
- poly(ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate