A TS-1 zeolite with a disordered network of mesopores penetrating the microporous crystalline zeolite framework was successfully synthesized by a one-pot carbon hard-templating synthesis approach. Besides conventional methods to characterize the mesoporosity, the use of variable-temperature 129Xe NMR spectroscopy was explored. At low temperature, a new resonance of 129Xe adsorbed in the mesopores could be distinguished from the signal of Xe in the micropores. The similarity of UV-vis and UV resonance Raman spectra of this mesoporous TS-1 zeolite with a conventional microporous TS-1 zeolite shows that the local coordination environment of Ti in these samples is identical. Further characterization (TEM, XRD) indicates that phase separation of titanium oxide is absent. The mesoporous TS-1 zeolite exhibits improved catalytic activity in the hydroxylation of phenol and ammoxidation of methyl ethyl ketone. The catalytic activity is substantially improved by introducing mesoporosity in TS-1, whereas the selectivity to the desired products is very similar. The improved catalytic activity of the TS-1 with the hierarchical structure is mainly attributed to the improved mass transfer of reactants and products into and out of the zeolite micropores. The generation of the hierarchical pore structure by the one-pot carbon-templating route becomes a general strategy for the synthesis of hierarchical zeolite with different compositions.