Energy transfer in a host-guest system consisting of a blue-emitting poly(2,7-spirofluorene) (PSF) donor and red-emitting CdSe/ZnS core shell quantum dots (QDs) as acceptor is investigated in solid films, using time-resolved optical spectroscopy, and in electroluminescent diodes. In the QD:PSF composite films, the Förster radius for energy transfer is found to be 4–6 nm. In electroluminescent devices lacking an electron transport layer, the electroluminescence (EL) spectrum of the QD:PSF polymer composite is similar to the photoluminescence (PL), giving evidence for energy transfer from PSF to the QDs. The addition of an electron transport layer between the emitting layer and the cathode results in a significant change in the EL spectrum and a considerable improved device performance, providing almost pure monochromatic emission at 630 nm with a luminance efficiency of 0.32 cd/A. The change in spectrum signifies that the electron transport layer changes the dominant pathway for QD emission from energy transfer from the polymer host to direct electron-hole recombination on the QDs.