Energy governance in Belgium

Thijs Van de Graaf, Erik Laes, Aviel Verbruggen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterAcademicpeer-review


This chapter reviews the conditions, policies, and institutions of energy governance in Belgium. Except for coal, Belgium has no indigenous energy sources. Nuclear energy accounts for around half of Belgium’s electricity generation but all nuclear power plants are scheduled to phase out by 2025. Energy governance in Belgium is characterized by a lack of a strategic and coherent vision. The responsibilities for energy policy in Belgium are shared among the federal government and the three regions (Flanders, Wallonia, and Brussels). The distribution of competences is very heterogeneous and creates coordination problems. The main drivers of policy initiatives are European directives and international agreements. Belgium is currently not on track to meet its 2020 goals for energy efficiency and emission reductions. A major part of the explanation for Belgium’s weak performance is the dominant role of energy corporations in the Belgian energy sector.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHandbook of Energy Governance in Europe
EditorsMichèle Knodt, Jörg Kemmerzell
Place of PublicationCham
PublisherSpringer Nature
Number of pages22
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-319-73526-9
Publication statusPublished - 25 Oct 2019


  • Belgium
  • Energy governance
  • Nuclear phaseout
  • Low carbon transition
  • Federal state


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