Energy-efficiency improvement potential of electric vehicles considering transmission temperature

C. Wei, T. Hofman, E. Ilhan Caarls, R. van Iperen

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
163 Downloads (Pure)


This study presents an integrated energy and transmission thermal management system to quantify the impact of a cold-start on the energy consumption of electric vehicles (EVs) from optimal control perspective. In addition, it provides insights into reducing this cold effect from design point of view. The cold-start conditions in an EV refer to a low transmission temperature, which increases the frictional power losses caused by viscosity effects in the transmission. These losses are eventually compensated by the battery, leading to excess energy usage. A detailed EV model, especially the transmission part with transient thermodynamics based on experiment data, is developed, and the integrated energy and thermal controller aims to maximize the energy efficiency. Numerical results show that a cold-start influences the energy-saving potential, up to 2.9%. Through analysis of temperature-dependent transmission behavior and energy losses of the EV, design considerations of reducing the cold impact, thus improving energy efficiency, can be derived.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)211-216
Number of pages6
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2019
Event8th IFAC Symposium on Mechatronic Systems, MECHATRONICS 2019 - Vienna, Austria
Duration: 4 Sept 20196 Sept 2019


  • Electric vehicles
  • Energy efficiency
  • Cold-start
  • Transmission temperature
  • Optimal control


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