Enabling strain imaging in realistic Eulerian ultrasound simulation methods

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Cardiovascular strain imaging is continually improving due to ongoing advances in ultrasound acquisition and data processing techniques. The phantoms used for validation of new methods are often burdensome to make and lack flexibility to vary mechanical and acoustic properties. Simulations of US imaging provide an alternative with the required flexibility and ground truth strain data. However, the current Lagrangian US strain imaging models cannot simulate heterogeneous speed of sound distributions and higher-order scattering, which limits the realism of the simulations. More realistic Eulerian modelling techniques exist but have so far not been used for strain imaging. In this research, a novel sampling scheme was developed based on a band-limited interpolation of the medium, which enables accurate strain simulation in Eulerian methods. The scheme was validated in k-Wave using various numerical phantoms and by a comparison with Field II. The method allows for simulations with a large range in strain values and was accurate with errors smaller than −60 dB. Furthermore, an excellent agreement with the Fourier theory of US scattering was found. The ability to perform simulations with heterogeneous speed of sound distributions was demonstrated using a pulsating artery model. The developed sampling scheme contributes to more realistic strain imaging simulations, in which the effect of heterogenous acoustic properties can be taken into account.
Original languageEnglish
Article number107127
Number of pages11
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023


This research was funded by the Horizon 2020 Framework Programme ( 731771 ), and Stichting Lijf en Leven ( 37 ).

FundersFunder number
European Union's Horizon 2020 - Research and Innovation Framework Programme731771
Stichting Lijf en Leven


    • Cardiovascular
    • k-Wave
    • Sampling
    • Simulation
    • Strain imaging


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