ELM mitigation with pellet ELM triggering and implications for PFCs and plasma performance in ITER

L.R. Baylor, P.T. Lang, S.L. Allen, S.K. Combs, N. Commaux, T.E. Evans, M.E. Fenstermacher, G.T.A. Huijsmans, T.C. Jernigan, C.J. Lasnier, A.W. Leonard, A. Loarte, R. Maingi, S. Maruyama, S.J. Meitner, R.A. Moyer, T.H. Osborne

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Abstract

PLASMA-SURFACE INTERACTIONS 21 — Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Plasma-Surface Interactions in Controlled Fusion Devices Kanazawa, Japan May 26-30, 2014 The triggering of rapid small edge localized modes (ELMs) by high frequency pellet injection has been proposed as a method to prevent large naturally occurring ELMs that can erode the ITER plasma facing components (PFCs). Deuterium pellet injection has been used to successfully demonstrate the ondemand triggering of edge localized modes (ELMs) at much higher rates and with much smaller intensity than natural ELMs. The proposed hypothesis for the triggering mechanism of ELMs by pellets is the local pressure perturbation resulting from reheating of the pellet cloud that can exceed the local high-n ballooning mode threshold where the pellet is injected. Nonlinear MHD simulations of the pellet ELM triggering show destabilization of high-n ballooning modes by such a local pressure perturbation. A review of the recent pellet ELM triggering results from ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), DIII-D, and JET reveals that a number of uncertainties about this ELM mitigation technique still remain. These include the heat flux impact pattern on the divertor and wall from pellet triggered and natural ELMs, the necessary pellet size and injection location to reliably trigger ELMs, and the level of fueling to be expected from ELM triggering pellets and synergy with larger fueling pellets. The implications of these issues for pellet ELM mitigation in ITER and its impact on the PFCs are presented along with the design features of the pellet injection system for ITER. 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction The H-mode confinement regime of plasma operation is planned for ITER in order to achieve high fusion performance. It is characterized by a steep pressure gradient and ‘‘pedestal’’ at the plasma edge that is expected to lead to the quasi-periodic instability of edgelocalized modes (ELMs) [1]. ELMs expel periodic bursts of particles and energy from the plasma, which if large enough can pose a serious threat to the PFCs by erosion and melting from the high heat fluxes and
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)104-108
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Nuclear Materials
Volume463
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

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