Two types of scaffolds were developed for tissue engineering of the aortic valve; an electrospun valvular scaffold and a knitted valvular scaffold. These scaffolds were compared in a physiologic flow system and in a tissue-engineering process. In fibrin gel enclosed human myofibroblasts were seeded onto both types of scaffolds and cultured for 23 days under continuous medium perfusion. Tissue formation was evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy, histology and DNA quantification. Collagen formation was quantified by a hydroxyproline assay. When subjected to physiologic flow, the spun scaffold tore within 6 h, whereas the knitted scaffold remained intact. Cells proliferated well on both types of scaffolds, although the cellular penetration into the spun scaffold was poor. Collagen production, normalized to DNA content, was not significantly different for the two types of scaffolds, but seeding efficiency was higher for the spun scaffold, because it acted as a cell impermeable filter. The knitted tissue constructs showed complete cellular in-growth into the pores. An optimal scaffold seems to be a combination of the strength of the knitted structure and the cell-filtering ability of the spun structure.