The ever increasing amount of global energy consumption based on the application of fossil fuels is threatening the earth’s natural resources and environment. Worldwide, grid-based electric lighting consumes 19 % of total global electricity production. For this reason the transition towards energy efficient lighting plays an important environmental role. One of the key technologies in this transition is High-Intensity Discharge (HID) lighting. The technical revolution in gas-discharge lamps has resulted in the highlyefficient lamps that are available nowadays. As with most energy efficient light solutions, all HID lighting systems require a ballast to operate. Traditionally, magnetic ballast designs were the only choice available for HID lighting systems. Today, electronic lampdrivers can offer additional power saving, flicker free operation, and miniaturisation. Electronic lamp operation enables additional degrees of freedom in lamp-current control over the conventional electro-magnetic (EM) ballasts. The lamp-driver system performance depends on both the dynamics of the lamp and the driver. This thesis focuses on the optimisation of electronically operated HID systems, in terms of highly-efficient lamp-driver topologies and, more specifically, lamp-driver interaction control. First, highly-efficient power topologies to operate compact HID lamps on low-frequency-square-wave (LFSW) current are explored. The proposed two-stage electronic lamp-driver consists of a Power Factor Corrector (PFC) stage that meets the power utility standards. This converter is coupled to a stacked buck converter that controls the lamp-current. Both stages are operated in Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS) mode in order to reduce the switching losses. The resulting two-stage lamp-drivers feature flexible controllability, high efficiency, and high power density, and are suitable for power sandwich packaging. Secondly, lamp-driver interaction (LDI) has been studied in the simulation domain and control algorithms have been explored that improve the stability, and enable system optimisation. Two HID lamp models were developed. The first model describes the HID lamp’s small-signal electrical behaviour and its purpose is to aid to study the interaction stability. The second HID lamp model has been developed based on physics equations for the arc column and the electrode behaviour, and is intended for lampdriver simulations and control applications. Verification measurements have shown that the lamp terminal characteristics are present over a wide power and frequency range. Three LDI control algorithms were explored, using the proposed lampmodels. The first control principle optimises the LDI for a broad range of HID lamps operated at normal or reduced power. This approach consists of two control loops integrated into a fuzzy-logic controller that stabilises the lamp-current and optimises the commutation process. The second control problem concerns the application of ultra high performance (UHP) HID lamps in projection applications that typically set stringent requirements on the quality of the light generated by these lamps, and therefore the lampcurrent. These systems are subject to periodic disturbances synchronous with the LFSW commutation period. Iterative learning control (ILC) has been examined. It was experimentally verified that this algorithm compensates for repetitive disturbances. Third, Electronic HID operation also opens the door for continuous HID lamp dimming that can provide additional savings. To enable stable dimming, an observer-based HID lamp controller has been developed. This controller sets a stable minimum dim-level and monitors the gas-discharge throughout lamp life. The HID lamp observer derives physical lamp state signals from the HID arc discharge physics and the related photometric properties. Finally, practical measurements proved the proposed HID lamp observer-based control principle works satisfactorily.
|Qualification||Doctor of Philosophy|
|Award date||27 Feb 2012|
|Place of Publication||Eindhoven|
|Publication status||Published - 2012|