Electron scattering and doping mechanisms in solid-phase-crystallized ln2O3:H prepared by atomic layer deposition

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Hydrogen-doped indium oxide (In2O3:H) has recently emerged as an enabling transparent conductive oxide for solar cells, in particular for silicon heterojunction solar cells because its high electron mobility (>100 cm2/(V s)) allows for a simultaneously high electrical conductivity and optical transparency. Here, we report on high-quality In2O3:H prepared by a low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) process and present insights into the doping mechanism and the electron scattering processes that limit the carrier mobility in such films. The process consists of ALD of amorphous In2O3:H at 100 °C and subsequent solid-phase crystallization at 150–200 °C to obtain large-grained polycrystalline In2O3:H films. The changes in optoelectronic properties upon crystallization have been monitored both electrically by Hall measurements and optically by analysis of the Drude response. After crystallization, an excellent carrier mobility of 128 ± 4 cm2/(V s) can be obtained at a carrier density of 1.8 × 1020 cm–3, irrespective of the annealing temperature. Temperature-dependent Hall measurements have revealed that electron scattering is dominated by unavoidable phonon and ionized impurity scattering from singly charged H-donors. Extrinsic defect scattering related to material quality such as grain boundary and neutral impurity scattering was found to be negligible in crystallized films indicating that the carrier mobility is maximized. Furthermore, by comparison of the absolute H-concentration and the carrier density in crystallized films, it is deduced that
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)16723-16729
JournalACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Issue number30
Publication statusPublished - 5 Aug 2015


  • Atomic layer deposition
  • transparent conductive oxide
  • spectroscopic ellipsometry
  • carrier mobility
  • solid-phase crystallization
  • dopin& ionized impurity scattering
  • phonon scattering


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