Electron emission processes in photocathodes and dynodes

J. Smedley, S.G. Schubert, J. Xie, M. Ruiz-Osës, X. Liang, E.M. Muller, H.A. Padmore, J. Wong, S. Hulbert, A.M.M.G. Theulings, S.X. Tao, H. van der Graaf

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


The Timed Photon Counter 'Tipsy' detector relies on electron-emitting thin films for generation of primary electrons from a photocathode and the subsequent amplification via SiN dynodes. Both of these films represent materials challenges, and both are being investigated using synchrotrons to optimize their performance. For the dynodes, a program of soft x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to measure the performance of the films and to understand film stoichiometry and the effects of surface termination. The secondary electron yield is estimated by measuring the low energy tail of the XPS spectrum and comparing it to the rate of high energy electron emission. For photocathodes, time resolved x-ray analysis during growth has provided insight into the formation chemistry of these materials. This has allowed optimization beyond Quantum Efficiency (QE) to produce cathodes which are far less rough than traditional alkali antimonides, while retaining reasonable QE.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2014 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (NSS/MIC), 8-15 November 2014, Seattle, Washington
Place of PublicationPiscataway
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Number of pages4
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-4799-6097-2
Publication statusPublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes
Event2014 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (NSS/MIC) - Seattle, United States
Duration: 8 Nov 201415 Nov 2014


Conference2014 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (NSS/MIC)
Country/TerritoryUnited States


Dive into the research topics of 'Electron emission processes in photocathodes and dynodes'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this