Since its starting point in 1929, human scalp electroencephalography (EEG) has been routinely interpreted by visual inspection of waveforms using the assumption that the activity at a given electrode is a representation of the activity of the cerebral cortex under it, but such a method has some limitations. In this review, we will discuss three advanced methods to obtain valuable information from scalp EEG in epilepsy using innovative technologies. Authors who had previous publications in the field provided a narrative review. Spike voltage topography of interictal spikes is a potential way to improve non-invasive EEG localization in focal epilepsies. Electrical source imaging is also a complementary technique in localization of the epileptogenic zone in patients who are candidates for epilepsy surgery. Quantitative EEG simplifies the large amount of information in continuous EEG by providing a static graphical display. Scalp electroencephalography has the potential to offer more spatial and temporal information than the traditional way of visual inspection alone in patients with epilepsy. Fortunately, with the help of modern digital EEG equipment and computer-assisted analysis, this information is more accessible.
- Source localization
- Voltage topography