Efficient basic hydrotalcite (HT)-supported gold nanoparticle (AuNP) catalysts have been developed for the aerobic oxidative tandem synthesis of methyl esters and imines from primary alcohols catalyzed under mild and soluble-base-free conditions. The catalytic performance can be fine-tuned for these cascade reactions by simple adjustment of the Mg/Al atomic ratio of the HT support. The one-pot synthesis of methyl esters benefits from high basicity (Mg/Al=5), whereas moderate basicity greatly improves imine selectivity (Mg/Al=2). These catalysts outperform previously reported AuNP catalysts by far. Kinetic studies show a cooperative enhancement between AuNP and the surface basic sites, which not only benefits the oxidation of the starting alcohol but also the subsequent steps of the tandem reactions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that straightforward control of the composition of the support has been shown to yield optimum AuNP catalysts for different tandem reactions.