Ductility of 3D printed concrete reinforced with short straight steel fibers

F.P. Bos (Corresponding author), E. Bosco, T.A.M. Salet

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

123 Citations (Scopus)
510 Downloads (Pure)


With the number of 3D printed concrete structures rapidly increasing, the demand for concepts that allow for robust and ductile printed objects becomes increasingly pressing. An obvious solution strategy is the inclusion of fibers in the printed material. In this study, the effect of adding short straight steel fibers on the failure behaviour of Weber 3D 115-1 print mortar has been studied through several CMOD tests on cast and printed concrete, on different scales. The experiments have also been simulated numerically. The research has shown that the fibers cause an important increase in flexural strength, and eliminate the strength difference between cast and printed concrete that exists without fibers. The post-peak behaviour, nevertheless, has to be characterised as strongly strain-softening. In the printed specimens, a strong fiber orientation in the direction of the filament occurs. However, this has no notable effect on the performance in the tested direction: cast and printed concrete with fibers behave similarly in the CMOD test. For the key parameters, no scale effect was found for the specimens with fibers, contrary to the ones without. Numerical modelling of the test by using the Concrete Damage Plasticity material model of Abaqus, with a Thorenfeldt-based constitutive law in compression and a customised constitutive law in tension, results in a reasonable fit with the experimental results.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)160-174
Number of pages15
JournalVirtual and Physical Prototyping
Issue number2
Early online date19 Nov 2018
Publication statusPublished - 3 Apr 2019


  • 3D printing
  • CMOD
  • concrete
  • numerical modelling
  • steel fiber


Dive into the research topics of 'Ductility of 3D printed concrete reinforced with short straight steel fibers'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this