Don’t Wait Until it Is Too Late: The Effect of Timing of Automated Feedback on Revision in ESL Writing

Rianne Conijn, Menno van Zaanen, Luuk van Waes

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review


Automated writing evaluation tools have been shown to improve writing quality. However, the impact of automated feedback, and especially the timing of the feedback, on students’ writing process is still unknown. Hence, we analyzed how feedback timing influences the revision process. Three experimental conditions were implemented into the writing tool CyWrite: no feedback, immediate feedback during the drafting and revision stage, and feedback during the revision stage only. Keystroke data were collected from 60 ESL students while conducting a source-based argumentative writing task. The revisions made during the writing process and the students’ satisfaction with the system were analyzed. The results showed little differences in the amount, size, and duration of revisions between the three conditions. However, students reported they felt more disrupted when feedback was provided during the full writing process rather than in the revision stage only.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationTransforming Learning with Meaningful Technologies - 14th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning, EC-TEL 2019, Proceedings
EditorsMaren Scheffel, Julien Broisin, Viktoria Pammer-Schindler, Andri Ioannou, Jan Schneider
Place of PublicationDelft, The Netherlands
Number of pages5
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Externally publishedYes

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume11722 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


  • Automated writing evaluation
  • Feedback
  • Keystroke analysis
  • Revision
  • Writing analytics

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