A prerequisite for reliable operation of electrical power networks is that supply and demand are balanced at all time, as efficient ways for storing large amounts of electrical energy are scarce. Balancing is challenging, however, due to the power system's dimensions and complexity, the low controllability and predictability of demand, and due to strict physical and security limitations, such as finitely fast generator dynamics and finite transmission-line capacities. The need for efficient and secure balancing arrangements is growing stronger with the increasing integration of distributed generation (DG), the ongoing deregulation of production and consumption of electrical energy, and thus, also the provision of many of the ancillary services that are essential for network stability. DG is mostly based on renewable, intermittent sources such as wind and sun, and consequently, it is associated with a much larger uncertainty in supply than conventional, centralized generation. Moreover, with the emergence of deregulated energy markets as core operational mechanism, the prime goal of power system operation is shifted from centralized minimization of costs to the maximization of individual profit by a large number of competing, autonomous market agents. The main objective of this thesis is to investigate the control-technical possibilities for ensuring efficient, reliable and stable operation of deregulated and badly predictable electrical power networks. Its contributions cover aspects of power system operation on a time scale ranging from day-ahead trading of electrical energy to second-based load-frequency control. As a first contribution, we identify the maximization of security of supply and market efficiency as the two main, yet conflicting objectives of power system operation. Special attention is paid to congestion management, which is an aspect of power system operation where the tension between reliability and efficiency is particularly apparent. More specifically, the differences between locational pricing and cost-based congestion redispatch are analyzed, followed by an assessment of their effects on grid operation. Next, we demonstrate that the current synchronous, energy-based market and incentive system does not necessarily motivate producers to exchange power profiles with the electricity grid that contribute to network stability and security of supply. The thesis provides an alternative production scheduling concept as a means to overcome this issue, which relies on standard market arrangements, but settles energy transactions in an asynchronous way. Theoretical analysis and simulation results illustrate that by adopting this method, scheduling efficiency is improved and the strain on balancing reserves can be reduced considerably. A major part of this thesis is dedicated to real-time, i.e., closed-loop, balancing or load-frequency control. With the increasing share of badly predictable DG, there is a growing need for efficient balancing mechanisms that can account for generator and transmission constraints during the operational day. A promising candidate solution is model predictive control (MPC). Because the large dimensions and complexity of electrical power networks hamper a standard, centralized implementation of MPC, we evaluate a number of scalable alternatives, in which the overall control action is computed by a set of local predictive control laws, instead. The extent of inter-controller communication is shown to be positively correlated with prediction accuracy and, thus, attainable closed-loop performance. Iterative, system-wide communication/coordination is usually not feasible for large networks, however, and consequently, Pareto-optimal performance and coupled-constraint handling are currently out of reach. This also hampers the application of standard cost-based stabilization schemes, in which closed-loop stability is attained via monotonic convergence of a single, optimal system-wide performance cost. Motivated by the observations regarding non-centralized MPC, the focus is then shifted to distributed control methods for networks of interconnected dynamical systems, with power systems as particular field of application, that can ensure stability based on local model and state information only. First, we propose a non-centralized, constraint-based stabilization scheme, in which the set of stabilizing control actions is specified via separable convergence conditions for a collection of a-priori synthesized structured max-control Lyapunov functions (max-CLFs). The method is shown to be non-conservative, in the sense that non-monotonic convergence of the structured functions along closed-loop trajectories is allowed, whereas their construction establishes the existence of a control Lyapunov function, and thus, stability, for the full, interconnected dynamics. Then, an alternative method is provided in which also the demand for a monotonically converging full-system CLF is relaxed while retaining the stability certificate. The conditions are embedded in an almost-decentralized Lyapunov-based MPC scheme, in which the local control laws rely on neighbor-to-neighbor communication only. Secondly, a generalized theorem and example system are provided to show that stabilization methods that rely on the off-line synthesis of fixed quadratic storage functions (SFs) fail for even the simplest of linear, time-invariant networks, if they contain one or more subsystems that are not stable under decoupled operation. This may also impede the application of max-CLF control. As key contribution of this thesis, to solve this issue, we endow the storage functions with a finite set of state-dependent parameters. Max-type convergence conditions are employed to construct a Lyapunov function for the full network, whereas monotonic convergence of the individual SFs is not required. The merit of the provided approach is that the storage functions can be constructed during operation, i.e., along a closed-loop trajectory, thus removing the impediment of centralized, off-line LF synthesis associated with fixed-parameter SFs. It is shown that parameterized-SF synthesis conditions can be efficiently exploited to obtain a scalable, trajectory-dependent control scheme that relies on non-iterative neighbor-to-neighbor communication only. For input-affine network dynamics and quadratic storage functions, the procedure can be implemented by solving a single semi-definite program per node and sampling instant, in a receding horizon fashion. Moreover, by interpolating a collection of so-obtained input trajectories, a low-complexity explicit control law for linear, time-invariant systems is obtained that extends the trajectory-specific convergence property to a much stronger guarantee of closed-loop asymptotic stability for a particular set of initial conditions. Finally, we consider the application of max-CLF and parameterized SFs for real-time balancing in multimachine electrical power networks. Given that generators are operated by competitive, profit-driven market agents, the stabilization scheme is extended with the competitive optimization of a set of arbitrarily chosen, local performance cost functions over a finite, receding prediction horizon. The suitability of the distributed Lyapunov-based predictive control and parameterized storage function algorithms is evaluated by simulating them in closed-loop with the 7-machine CIGRÉ benchmark system. The thesis concludes by summarizing the main contributions, followed by ideas for future research.
|Qualification||Doctor of Philosophy|
|Award date||20 Nov 2012|
|Place of Publication||Eindhoven|
|Publication status||Published - 2012|