We examine threshold-based transmission strategies for distributed opportunistic medium access in a scenario with fairly general probabilistic interference conditions. Specifically, collisions between concurrent transmissions are governed by arbitrary probabilities, allowing for a form of channel capture and covering binary interference constraints as an important special case. We address the problem of setting the threshold values so as to optimize the aggregate throughput utility of the various users, and particularly focus on a weighted logarithmic throughput utility function (Proportional Fairness). We provide an adaptive algorithm for finding the optimal threshold values in a distributed fashion, and rigorously establish the convergence of the proposed algorithm under mild statistical assumptions. Moreover, we discuss how the algorithm may be adapted to achieve packet-level stability with only limited exchange of queue length information among the various users. We also conduct extensive numerical experiments to corroborate the theoretical convergence results.