Development of internal transport barrier scenarios at ITER-relevant high triangularity in JET

F.G. Rimini, M. Bécoulet, E. Giovannozzi, P.J. Lomas, O. Tudisco, B. Alper, F. Crisanti, M. de Baar, E. de La Luna, P. de Vries, A. Ekedahl, N. Hawkes, G.T.A. Huysmans, X. Litaudon, V. Parail, G. Saibene, A.A. Tuccillo, K.D. Zastrow, EFDA-JET Workprogramme Contributors

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9 Citations (Scopus)


The development of scenarios characterized by H-mode confinement and internal transport barriers (ITBs) in high triangularity, δ ~ 0.4-0.5, discharges is of particular interest for ITER advanced tokamak operation. Previous JET experiments have shown that high triangularity favours H-modes which are ELM-free or develop type I edge localized mode (ELM) activity, which inhibits long lasting ITBs. The recent experiments reported here concentrate on integrated optimization of edge and core conditions. The stability of the edge pedestal was controlled using gas injection, deuterium or light impurities, and plasma current ramps. Both methods yield more ITB-friendly edge pedestal conditions, varying from small type I to type III ELMs and, in extreme cases, resulting in L-mode. In parallel, the conditions for triggering and sustaining ITBs encompassing a large proportion of the plasma volume (outer ITBs) were optimized, as opposed to less performing ITBs located closer to the plasma centre (inner ITB). These plasmas have deeply reversed target current profiles with qmin ~ 3 and a narrow inner ITB, located typically at a small normalized radius ρ <0.5 and close to the reversed shear region, is routinely observed. Large radius outer ITBs are only triggered at an input power in excess of 20 MW, but they do not usually survive the transition into H-mode. The best results, in terms of sustained high confinement, have been obtained with neon injection; an outer ITB is triggered during the phase with L-mode edge and survives into H-mode for about 2 s, corresponding to ~10 times the global energy confinement time τE, at q95 = 7.5, H89βN ~ 3.5-4 and ~60% of the Greenwald density limit. In summary, a high triangularity scenario has been developed, which combines the desirable characteristics of controlled edge, long lasting wide ITBs and high performance at density higher than the low triangularity JET scenarios.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1481-1492
JournalNuclear Fusion
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2005
Externally publishedYes


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