Development and experimental validation of a real-time capable field programmable gate array–based gas exchange model for negative valve overlap

David Gordon (Corresponding author), Christian Wouters, Maximilian Wick, Feihong Xia, Bastian Lehrheuer, Jakob Andert, Charles R. Koch, Stefan Pischinger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


Homogeneous charge compression ignition has the potential to significantly reduce NO x emissions, while maintaining a high fuel efficiency. Homogeneous charge compression ignition is characterized by compression-induced autoignition of a lean homogeneous air–fuel mixture. Combustion timing is highly dependent on the in-cylinder state including pressure, temperature and trapped mass. To control homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion, it is necessary to have an accurate representation of the gas exchange process. Currently, microprocessor-based engine control units require that the gas exchange process is linearized around a desired operating point to simplify the model for real-time implementation. This reduces the models’ ability to handle disturbances and limits the flexibility of the model. However, using a field programmable gate array, a detailed simulation of the physical gas exchange process can be implemented in real time. This paper outlines the process of converting physical governing equations to an offline zero-dimensional gas exchange model. The process used to convert this model to a field programmable gate array capable model is described. This model is experimentally validated using a single cylinder research engine with electromagnetic valves to record real-time field programmable gate array gas exchange results and comparing to the offline zero-dimensional physical model. The field programmable gate array model is able to accurately calculate the cylinder temperature and cylinder mass at 0.1 °CA intervals during the gas exchange process for a range of negative valve overlaps, boost conditions and engine speeds making the model useful for future real-time control applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)421-436
Number of pages16
JournalInternational Journal of Engine Research
Issue number3
Early online date2020
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2020


  • Field programmable gate array
  • gas exchange model
  • gasoline-controlled autoignition
  • homogeneous charge compression ignition
  • zero-dimensional engine simulation


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