Determination of resist parameters using the extended Nijboer-Zernike theory

P. Dirksen, J.J.M. Braat, A.J.E.M. Janssen, A. Leeuwestein, H. Kwinten, D. Van Steenwinckel

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


This study presents an experimental method to determine the resist parameters that are at the origin of a general blurring of the projected aerial image. The resist model includes the effects of diffusion in the horizontal plane and a second cause for image blur that originates from a stochastic variation of the focus parameter. The used mathematical framework is the so-called Extended Nijboer-Zernike (ENZ) theory. The experimental procedure to extract the model parameters is demonstrated for several 193 nm resists under various conditions of post exposure baking temperature and baking time. The advantage of our approach is a clear separation between the optical parameters, such as feature size, projection lens aberrations and the illuminator setting on the one hand and process parameters introducing blur on the other.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings Optical Microlithography XVII, 24 - 27 January 2004, Santa Clara, California
Place of PublicationBellingham
Publication statusPublished - 2004

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE
ISSN (Print)0277-786X


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