Detailed measurements of transient two-stage ignition and combustion processes in high-pressure spray flames using simultaneous high-speed formaldehyde PLIF and schlieren imaging

Hyung Sub Sim (Corresponding author), Noud Maes, Lukas Weiss, Lyle M. Pickett, Scott A. Skeen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

This study investigates the low- and high-temperature ignition and combustion processes in a high-pressure spray flame of n-dodecane using simultaneous 50-kHz formaldehyde (HCHO) planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) and 100-kHz schlieren imaging. The PLIF measurements were facilitated through the use of a pulse-burst-mode Nd:YAG laser, producing a 355-nm pulse-train with 300 pulses at 70 mJ/pulse, separated by 20-μs, in a 6-ms burst. The high-speed HCHO PLIF signal was imaged using a non-intensified CMOS camera with dynamic background emission correction. The acquisition rate of this HCHO PLIF diagnostic is unique to the research community, and when combined with high-speed schlieren imaging, provides unprecedented opportunity for analysis of the spatiotemporal evolution of fuel jet penetration and low- and high-temperature ignition processes relevant to internal combustion engine conditions. The present experiments are conducted in the Sandia constant-volume preburn vessel equipped with a new Spray A injector. The influences of ambient conditions are examined on the ignition delay times of the two-stage ignition events, HCHO structures, and lift-off length values. Consistent with past studies of traditional Spray A flames, the formation of HCHO is first observed in the jet peripheries where the equivalence ratio is expected to be leaner and hotter and then grows in size and in intensity downstream into the jet core where is expected to be richer and colder. The measurements demonstrate that the formation and propagation of HCHO from the leaner to richer region leads to high-temperature ignition events, supporting the identification of a phenomenon coined "cool-flame wave propagation" during the transient ignition process. Subsequent high-temperature ignition is found to consume the previously formed HCHO in the jet head, while the formation of HCHO persists in the fuel-rich zone near the flame base over the entire combustion period.

Original languageEnglish
JournalProceedings of the Combustion Institute
VolumeXX
Issue numberX
Early online date31 Oct 2020
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 31 Oct 2020

Keywords

  • Diesel combustion
  • High-speed formaldehyde PLIF
  • Schlieren imaging
  • Spray combustion

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