Data and software are nowadays one and the same: for this very reason, the European Union (EU) and other governments introduce frameworks for data protection — a key example being the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). However, GDPR compliance is not straightforward: its text is not written by software or information engineers but rather, by lawyers and policy-makers. As a design aid to information engineers aiming for GDPR compliance, as well as an aid to software users’ understanding of the regulation, this article offers a systematic synthesis and discussion of it, distilled by the mathematical analysis method known as Formal Concept Analysis (FCA). By its principles, GDPR is synthesised as a concept lattice, that is, a formal summary of the regulation, featuring 144372 records — its uses are manifold. For example, the lattice captures so-called attribute implications, the implicit logical relations across the regulation, and their intensity. These results can be used as drivers during systems and services (re-)design, development, operation, or information systems’ refactoring towards more GDPR consistency.
- Formal-concept analysis