Derivation of an optimal directivity pattern for sweet spot widening in stereo sound reproduction

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Abstract

In this paper the correction of the degradation of the stereophonic illusion during sound reproduction due to off-center listening is investigated. The main idea is that the directivity pattern of a loudspeaker array should have a well-defined shape such that a good stereo reproduction is achieved in a large listening area. Therefore, a mathematical description to derive an optimal directivity pattern lopt that achieves sweet spot widening in a large listening area for stereophonic sound applications is described. This optimal directivity pattern is based on parametrized time/intensity trading data coming from psycho-acoustic experiments within a wide listening area. After the study, the required digital FIR filters are determined by means of a least-squares optimization method for a given stereo base setup (two pair of drivers for the loudspeaker arrays and 2.5-m distance between loudspeakers), which radiate sound in a broad range of listening positions in accordance with the derived lopt. Informal listening tests have shown that the lopt worked as predicted by the theoretical simulations. They also demonstrated the correct central sound localization for speech and music for a number of listening positions. This application is referred to as "Position-Independent (PI) stereo."
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)267-278
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of the Acoustical Society of America
Volume113
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2003

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directivity
loudspeakers
derivation
stereophonics
acoustics
sound localization
illusions
FIR filters
music
degradation
optimization
Sound
simulation

Cite this

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title = "Derivation of an optimal directivity pattern for sweet spot widening in stereo sound reproduction",
abstract = "In this paper the correction of the degradation of the stereophonic illusion during sound reproduction due to off-center listening is investigated. The main idea is that the directivity pattern of a loudspeaker array should have a well-defined shape such that a good stereo reproduction is achieved in a large listening area. Therefore, a mathematical description to derive an optimal directivity pattern lopt that achieves sweet spot widening in a large listening area for stereophonic sound applications is described. This optimal directivity pattern is based on parametrized time/intensity trading data coming from psycho-acoustic experiments within a wide listening area. After the study, the required digital FIR filters are determined by means of a least-squares optimization method for a given stereo base setup (two pair of drivers for the loudspeaker arrays and 2.5-m distance between loudspeakers), which radiate sound in a broad range of listening positions in accordance with the derived lopt. Informal listening tests have shown that the lopt worked as predicted by the theoretical simulations. They also demonstrated the correct central sound localization for speech and music for a number of listening positions. This application is referred to as {"}Position-Independent (PI) stereo.{"}",
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Derivation of an optimal directivity pattern for sweet spot widening in stereo sound reproduction. / Ródenas, J.A.; Aarts, R.M.; Janssen, A.J.E.M.

In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 113, No. 1, 2003, p. 267-278.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Derivation of an optimal directivity pattern for sweet spot widening in stereo sound reproduction

AU - Ródenas, J.A.

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AU - Janssen, A.J.E.M.

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AB - In this paper the correction of the degradation of the stereophonic illusion during sound reproduction due to off-center listening is investigated. The main idea is that the directivity pattern of a loudspeaker array should have a well-defined shape such that a good stereo reproduction is achieved in a large listening area. Therefore, a mathematical description to derive an optimal directivity pattern lopt that achieves sweet spot widening in a large listening area for stereophonic sound applications is described. This optimal directivity pattern is based on parametrized time/intensity trading data coming from psycho-acoustic experiments within a wide listening area. After the study, the required digital FIR filters are determined by means of a least-squares optimization method for a given stereo base setup (two pair of drivers for the loudspeaker arrays and 2.5-m distance between loudspeakers), which radiate sound in a broad range of listening positions in accordance with the derived lopt. Informal listening tests have shown that the lopt worked as predicted by the theoretical simulations. They also demonstrated the correct central sound localization for speech and music for a number of listening positions. This application is referred to as "Position-Independent (PI) stereo."

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