Dendrimers: Relationship between structure and biocompatibility in vitro, and preliminary studies on the biodistribution of 125l-labelled polyamidoamine dendrimers in vivo

N. Malik, M.R. Wiwattanapatapee, R. Klopsch, K. Lorenz, H. Frey, J.W. Weener, E.W. Meijer, W. Paulus, R. Duncan

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Abstract

Dendrimers are highly branched macromolecules of low polydispersity that provide many exciting opportunities for design of novel drug-carriers, gene delivery systems and imaging agents. They hold promise in tissue targeting applications, controlled drug release and moreover, their interesting nanoscopic architecture might allow easier passage across biological barriers by transcytosis. However, from the vast array of structures currently emerging from synthetic chemistry it is essential to design molecules that have real potential for in vivo biological use. Here, polyamidoamine (PAMAM, Starburst™), poly(propyleneimine) with either diaminobutane or diaminoethane as core, and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) grafted carbosilane (CSi–PEO) dendrimers were used to study systematically the effect of dendrimer generation and surface functionality on biological properties in vitro. Generally, dendrimers bearing -NH termini displayed concentration- and in 2 the case of PAMAM dendrimers generation-dependent haemolysis, and changes in red cell morphology were observed after 1 h even at low concentrations (10 mg/ml). At concentrations below 1 mg/ml CSi–PEO dendrimers and those dendrimers with carboxylate (COONa) terminal groups were neither haemolytic nor cytotoxic towards a panel of cell lines in vitro. In general, cationic dendrimers were cytotoxic (72 h incubation), displaying IC values 50–300 mg/ml dependent on dendrimer-type, cell-type and generation. Preliminary studies with polyether dendrimers prepared by the convergent route showed that dendrimers with carboxylate and malonate surfaces were not haemolytic at 1 h, but after 24 h, unlike anionic 125 PAMAM dendrimers they were lytic. Cationic I-labelled PAMAM dendrimers (gen 3 and 4) administered intravenously (i.v.) to Wistar rats (|10 mg/ml) were cleared rapidly from the circulation (,2% recovered dose in blood at 1 h). Anionic PAMAM dendrimers (gen 2.5, 3.5 and 5.5) showed longer circulation times (|20–40% recovered dose in blood at 1 h) with
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)133-148
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Controlled Release
Volume65
Issue number1-2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2000

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