Delay-aware Multi-layer Multi-rate Model Predictive Control for Vehicle Platooning under Message-rate Congestion Control

Amr M.E. Ibrahim (Corresponding author), Dip Goswami, Hong Li, A.A. (Twan) Basten

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
103 Downloads (Pure)


Vehicle platooning is an enabler technology for increasing road capacity, improving safety and reducing fuel consumption. Platoon control is a two-layered system where each layer runs under a different communication standard and rate – (i) the upper-layer operates under a specific V2V communication standard such as IEEE 802.11p and (ii) the lower-layer operates over high-speed in-vehicle communication networks such as FlexRay, CAN. The upper-layer, under 802.11p, uses periodic Cooperative Awareness Messages (CAMs) for exchanging vehicle motion information (i.e., acceleration, velocity and so on), the rate of which is adapted depending on the network congestion level.With over 70% channel load, the CAMs experience significant delay and packet loss, jeopardizing the stability of the platoon control. Under such high congestion, the European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI) proposes to engage Decentralized Congestion Control (DCC) to control the channel load. We propose a platoon control and DCC scheme to tackle this scenario. Our contribution is three-fold. First, we propose a multi-layer platoon model explicitly augmenting the communication delay in the state-space. Second, the augmented delay-aware platoon model is integrated in the state-of-the-art multi-layer multi-rate model predictive control (MPC) for the upper-layer. Third, we adopt a message-rate congestion control scheme to keep the channel load under a given threshold. We use the proposed delay-aware MPC scheme under the message-rate congestion control scheme which may lead to switching under dynamic network conditions. Using the proposed technique, we show that platoon performance can be maintained under high network congestion while maintaining string stability.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)44583-44607
Number of pages25
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 22 Apr 2022


FundersFunder number
European Union's Horizon 2020 - Research and Innovation Framework Programme674875


    • Cams
    • Communication delay
    • Communication standards
    • Control design
    • Delays
    • Message-rate congestion control
    • Model predictive control
    • Multi-layer multi-rate control
    • Safety
    • Stability analysis
    • Stability criteria
    • V2V communication
    • Vehicle platooning


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