Degradation mechanisms of C6/LiFePO4 batteries : experimental analyses of calendar aging

Dongjiang Li, Dmitri Danilov, J. Xie, L.H.J. Raijmakers, L. Gao, Y. Yang, P.H.L. Notten

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Abstract

The capacity loss and material decay of C6/LiFePO4 (LFP) batteries have been investigated under various storage conditions in dependence of State-of-Charge (SoC) and temperature. The electromotive force (EMF) curves, which are regularly determined by mathematical extrapolation of the measured voltage discharge curves, are used to investigate the aging mechanisms during storage. The irreversible capacity loss, which is accurately determined on the basis of the maximum storage capacity estimated from the EMF curves, increases as a function of temperature and SoC. The cyclable Li-ion loss during storage is considered to be the main source of the irreversible capacity loss. Strikingly, the inaccessibility of graphite is observed during storage at 60 C. The graphite capacity decay has been quantitatively determined by non-destructive analyses on the basis of dVEMF/dQ curves. Deposition of Fe on the graphite electrode has experimentally been confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The increasing graphite inaccessibility is shown to be the consequence of Fe dissolution from the cathode and the subsequent deposition onto the anode.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1124-1133
Number of pages10
JournalElectrochimica Acta
Volume190
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Fingerprint

Graphite
Aging of materials
Degradation
Electromotive force
Graphite electrodes
Extrapolation
Anodes
Dissolution
Cathodes
X ray photoelectron spectroscopy
Ions
Temperature
LiFePO4
Electric potential

Keywords

  • Li-ion batteries
  • Solid-Electrolyte-Interphase
  • Capacity loss
  • Material decay
  • Electromotive Force

Cite this

Li, Dongjiang ; Danilov, Dmitri ; Xie, J. ; Raijmakers, L.H.J. ; Gao, L. ; Yang, Y. ; Notten, P.H.L. / Degradation mechanisms of C6/LiFePO4 batteries : experimental analyses of calendar aging. In: Electrochimica Acta. 2016 ; Vol. 190. pp. 1124-1133.
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abstract = "The capacity loss and material decay of C6/LiFePO4 (LFP) batteries have been investigated under various storage conditions in dependence of State-of-Charge (SoC) and temperature. The electromotive force (EMF) curves, which are regularly determined by mathematical extrapolation of the measured voltage discharge curves, are used to investigate the aging mechanisms during storage. The irreversible capacity loss, which is accurately determined on the basis of the maximum storage capacity estimated from the EMF curves, increases as a function of temperature and SoC. The cyclable Li-ion loss during storage is considered to be the main source of the irreversible capacity loss. Strikingly, the inaccessibility of graphite is observed during storage at 60 C. The graphite capacity decay has been quantitatively determined by non-destructive analyses on the basis of dVEMF/dQ curves. Deposition of Fe on the graphite electrode has experimentally been confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The increasing graphite inaccessibility is shown to be the consequence of Fe dissolution from the cathode and the subsequent deposition onto the anode.",
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author = "Dongjiang Li and Dmitri Danilov and J. Xie and L.H.J. Raijmakers and L. Gao and Y. Yang and P.H.L. Notten",
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Degradation mechanisms of C6/LiFePO4 batteries : experimental analyses of calendar aging. / Li, Dongjiang; Danilov, Dmitri; Xie, J.; Raijmakers, L.H.J.; Gao, L.; Yang, Y.; Notten, P.H.L.

In: Electrochimica Acta, Vol. 190, 2016, p. 1124-1133.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Degradation mechanisms of C6/LiFePO4 batteries : experimental analyses of calendar aging

AU - Li, Dongjiang

AU - Danilov, Dmitri

AU - Xie, J.

AU - Raijmakers, L.H.J.

AU - Gao, L.

AU - Yang, Y.

AU - Notten, P.H.L.

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - The capacity loss and material decay of C6/LiFePO4 (LFP) batteries have been investigated under various storage conditions in dependence of State-of-Charge (SoC) and temperature. The electromotive force (EMF) curves, which are regularly determined by mathematical extrapolation of the measured voltage discharge curves, are used to investigate the aging mechanisms during storage. The irreversible capacity loss, which is accurately determined on the basis of the maximum storage capacity estimated from the EMF curves, increases as a function of temperature and SoC. The cyclable Li-ion loss during storage is considered to be the main source of the irreversible capacity loss. Strikingly, the inaccessibility of graphite is observed during storage at 60 C. The graphite capacity decay has been quantitatively determined by non-destructive analyses on the basis of dVEMF/dQ curves. Deposition of Fe on the graphite electrode has experimentally been confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The increasing graphite inaccessibility is shown to be the consequence of Fe dissolution from the cathode and the subsequent deposition onto the anode.

AB - The capacity loss and material decay of C6/LiFePO4 (LFP) batteries have been investigated under various storage conditions in dependence of State-of-Charge (SoC) and temperature. The electromotive force (EMF) curves, which are regularly determined by mathematical extrapolation of the measured voltage discharge curves, are used to investigate the aging mechanisms during storage. The irreversible capacity loss, which is accurately determined on the basis of the maximum storage capacity estimated from the EMF curves, increases as a function of temperature and SoC. The cyclable Li-ion loss during storage is considered to be the main source of the irreversible capacity loss. Strikingly, the inaccessibility of graphite is observed during storage at 60 C. The graphite capacity decay has been quantitatively determined by non-destructive analyses on the basis of dVEMF/dQ curves. Deposition of Fe on the graphite electrode has experimentally been confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The increasing graphite inaccessibility is shown to be the consequence of Fe dissolution from the cathode and the subsequent deposition onto the anode.

KW - Li-ion batteries

KW - Solid-Electrolyte-Interphase

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KW - Material decay

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