A survey is given on the emissions related with the firing of ceramics. The formation of fluoride gas from the raw materials such as clays during the firing process is described. The choice of raw materiaIs, the mass composition, the firing curve (time, temperature), the amount of water vapour in the kiln, and the structure of the clay mass after the forming process, in combination with glazes, are discussed because of their crucial role in fluoride emission rates. It is therefore from an economie point of view interesting to study possibilities for process-directed measures. Such measures are directed at changes in the process parameters, for instance temperature, time, raw materials, or in the design of process equipment such as kilns.
|Journal||KGK, Tijdschrift voor Klei, Glas en Keramiek|
|Publication status||Published - 1993|