Pulse-oximetry has become a core monitoring modality in most fields of medicine. Typical dual-wavelength pulse-oximeters estimate blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) levels from a relationship between the amplitudes of red and infrared photoplethysmographic (PPG) waveforms. When captured with a camera, the PPG waveforms are much weaker and consequently the measurement is more sensitive to distortions and noises. Therefore, an indirect method has recently been proposed where, instead of extracting the relative amplitudes from the individual waveforms, the waveforms are linearly combined to construct a collection of pulse signals with different pulse signatures, each corresponding to a specific oxygen saturation level. This method has been shown to outperform the conventional ratio-of-ratios based methods, especially when adding a third wavelength. Adding wavelengths, however, complicates the calibration. Inaccuracies in the calibration model threaten the performance of the method. Opto-physiological models have been shown earlier to provide useful calibration parameter estimates. In this paper, we show that the accuracy can be improved using a data-driven approach. We performed 5-fold cross validation on recordings with variations in oxygen saturation and optimized for pulse quality. All evaluated wavelength combinations, also without visible red, meet the required ISO standard accuracy with the calibration from the proposed method. This scalable approach is not only helpful to fine-tune the calibration model, but even allows computation of the calibration model parameters from scratch without prior knowledge of the data acquisition details, i.e., the properties of camera and illumination.
- Contactless monitoring
- Remote photoplethysmography