The diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) by urine culture is an expensive and time-consuming procedure. Using a screening method, to identify negative samples, would improve the procedure and reduce costs. In this study, urine flow cytometry, of over 7000 urine samples, was assessed by retrospective analysis. With a cut-off value of >200bacteria/μl, we obtained a sensitivity of 93.0%, a specificity of 63.5%, and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 96.2%. As a result the culturing of 49% of all samples could be avoided. In addition, the data was retrospectively analyzed to determine if the introduction of gender-specific cut-off values could improve screening results. The obtained receiver operator curves are indeed significantly different when gender specific cut-offs were used. When a NPV of 95% is considered acceptable the unisex cut-off value of >200bacteria/μl can be used for women (NPV 94.9%), but the cut-off value for men could be raised to >400bacteria/μl without diminishing the NPV (NPV 95.0%).
Geerts, N., Boonen, K., A.K., B., & Scharnhorst, V. (2016). Cut-off values to rule out urinary tract infection should be gender-specific. Clinica Chimica Acta, 452, 173-176. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2015.11.022