Customized sequential designs for random simulation experiments : Kriging metamodeling and bootstrapping

W.C.M. Beers, van, J.P.C. Kleijnen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

58 Citations (Scopus)


This paper proposes a novel method to select an experimental design for interpolation in random simulation, especially discrete event simulation. (Though the paper focuses on Kriging, this design approach may also apply to other types of metamodels such as non-linear regression models and splines.) Assuming that simulation requires much computer time, it is important to select a design with a small number of observations (or simulation runs). The proposed method is therefore sequential. Its novelty is that it accounts for the specific input/output behavior (or response function) of the particular simulation at hand; i.e., the method is customized or application-driven. A tool for this customization is bootstrapping, which enables the estimation of the variances of predictions for inputs not yet simulated. The method is tested through two classic simulation models, namely the expected steady-state waiting time of the M/M/1 queuing model, and the mean costs of a terminating (s, S) inventory simulation. For these two simulation models the novel design indeed gives better results than a popular alternative design, namely Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) with a prefixed sample.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1099-1113
JournalEuropean Journal of Operational Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2008


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