Investigations of the compound Ho2Fe14C by means of X-ray and neutron diffraction as well as by metallographic techniques and differential thermal analysis (DTA) were carried out. Ho2Fe14C crystallizes in the tetragonal space group P42/mnm and is isotypic to Nd2Fe14B. The lattice constants are a = 8.7537(3) A ̊ and c = 11.8156(6) A ̊ at 295 K. The nuclear and magnetic structure of Ho2Fe14C was investigated by means of neutron diffraction at 673 K (above the Curie temperature Tc), room temperature, 50 K and 10 K. The magnetic moments of the Ho atoms are oriented antiparallel to the magnetic moments of the Fe atoms and lie parallel to the c axis. A predicted spin reorientation at 35 K could neither be proved nor rejected. Measurement of the magnetization curve by means of neutron diffraction yields a Tc of 530 K; DTA measurements yield a Tc of 540 K. The nuclear structure of Ho2Fe17Cx (Th2Ni17 structure type) has been refined simultaneously since such an impurity phase was present in the sample. The values of the iron moments in Ho2Fe14C found by means of neutron diffraction were compared with literature data obtained by means of 57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and with values derived in the present investigation from augmented spherical wave band structure calculations. There is satisfactory agreement between these sets of data.