Creating an emotionally adaptive game

Tim Tijs, Dirk Brokken, Wijnand IJsselsteijn

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


To optimize a player's experience, an emotionally adaptive game continuously adapts its mechanics to the player's emotional state, measured in terms of emotion-data. This paper presents the first of two studies that aim to realize an emotionally adaptive game. It investigates the relations between game mechanics, a player's emotional state and his/her emotion-data. In an experiment, one game mechanic (speed) was manipulated. Emotional state was self-reported in terms of valence, arousal and boredom-frustration-enjoyment. In addition, a number of (mainly physiology-based) emotion-data features were measured. Correlations were found between the valence/arousal reports and the emotion-data features. In addition, seven emotion-data features were found to distinguish between a boring, frustrating and enjoying game mode. Taken together, these features convey sufficient data to create a first version of an emotionally adaptive game.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEntertainment Computing - ICEC 2008 - 7th International Conference, Proceedings
EditorsScott M. Stevens, Shirley J. Saldamarco
Place of PublicationBerlin
Number of pages12
ISBN (Print)3540892214, 9783540892212
Publication statusPublished - 2008
Event7th International Conference on Entertainment Computing, ICEC 2008 - Pittsburgh, PA, United States
Duration: 25 Sept 200827 Sept 2008

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume5309 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Conference7th International Conference on Entertainment Computing, ICEC 2008
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityPittsburgh, PA


  • Adaptivity
  • Affective loop
  • Computer games
  • Emotions
  • Personalization
  • Psychophysiology


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