Correlation between localized strain and damage in shear-loaded Pb-free solders

M.A. Matin, J.G.A. Theeven, W.P. Vellinga, M.G.D. Geers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


A digital image correlation (DIC) algorithm was employed to measure microscopic strain-field evolution in shear-loaded model solder interconnections made out of a number of Sn-based alloys. Four different solder alloys studied were Sn–36Pb–2Ag, Sn–3.8Ag–0.7Cu (SAC), Sn–3.3Ag–3.82Bi, and Sn–8Zn–3Bi. The measured strain fields were correlated with damage observed at the scale of the sample, and at microscopic length scales.Local strain differs significantly from applied global strain and has been shown to depend on the geometry of the samples as well as the microstructure (on a grain level) of the solder.Strain fields in all solder interconnections were found to localize near but not at the solder–substrate interface and along grain boundaries in the solders. The eventual failure path as observed on the scale of the sample (parallel to the two solder–substrate interfaces with a cross-over from one interface to the other somewhere in the connection) showed a good correlation with measured strain fields in all interconnections.In contrast to the similarity on a macroscopic scale, on a microscopic scale the failure mechanisms were observed to be material specific.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1262-1272
JournalMicroelectronics Reliability
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2007


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