Conservative Management of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Preterm Infants-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses Assessing Differences in Outcome Measures Between Randomized Controlled Trials and Cohort Studies

Tim Hundscheid (Corresponding author), Esther J.S. Jansen, Wes Onland, Elisabeth M.W. Kooi, Peter Andriessen, Willem P. de Boode

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Objective: This study aims to evaluate outcome after conservative management (no pharmacological/surgical intervention other than fluid restriction, diuretics, or ventilator adjustments) compared with active (pharmacological and/or surgical) treatment for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants and analyze differences in outcome between randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies. Study Design: This is a systematic literature review using PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library. RCTs and cohort studies comparing conservative management with active treatment were included. Meta-analysis was used to compare conservative management with any active (pharmacological and/or surgical), any pharmacological (non-prophylactic and prophylactic), and/or surgical treatment for mortality as primary and major neonatal morbidity as secondary outcome measure. Fixed-effect analysis was used, unless heterogeneity (I2) was >50%. Outcome is presented as relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval. Results: Twelve cohort studies and four RCTs were included, encompassing 41,804 and 720 patients, respectively. In cohort studies, conservative management for PDA was associated with a significantly higher risk for mortality (RR, 1.34 [1.12-1.62]) but a significantly lower risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (RR, 0.55 [0.46-0.65]), necrotizing enterocolitis (RR, 0.85 [0.77-0.93]), intraventricular hemorrhage (RR, 0.88 [0.83-0.95]), and retinopathy of prematurity (RR, 0.47 [0.28-0.79]) compared with any active PDA treatment. Meta-analysis of the RCTs revealed no significant differences in outcome between conservative management and active treatment. Conclusion: No differences in mortality or morbidity for conservative management compared with active treatment regimens were observed in RCTs. Findings from cohort studies mainly highlight the lack of high-quality evidence for conservative management for PDA in preterm infants.

Original languageEnglish
Article number626261
Number of pages15
JournalFrontiers in Pediatrics
Volume9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 25 Feb 2021

Keywords

  • PDA
  • ibuprofen
  • indomethacin
  • ligation
  • morbidity
  • mortality
  • paracetamol
  • placebo

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