Three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry is applied to particle-laden turbulent pipe flows at a Reynolds number of 10 300, based on the bulk velocity and the pipe diameter, for developed fluid flow and not fully developed flow of inertial particles, which favours assessment of the radial migration of the inertial particles. Inertial particles with Stokes number ranging from 0.35 to 1.11, based on the particle relaxation time and the radial-dependent Kolmogorov time scale, and a ratio of the root-mean-square fluid velocity to the terminal velocity of order 1 have been used. Core peaking of the concentration of inertial particles in up-flow and wall peaking in down-flow have been found. The difference in mean particle and Eulerian mean liquid velocity is found to decrease to approximately zero near the wall in both flow directions. Although the carrier fluid has all of the characteristics of the corresponding turbulent single-phase flow, the Reynolds stress of the inertial particles is different near the wall in up-flow. These findings are explained from the preferential location of the inertial particles with the aid of direct numerical simulations with the point-particle approach.
- particle/fluid flow