This paper investigates the propagation of guided ultrasonic wave in pipes with bends using finite element simulation. The defect detectability in pipes with bends, using time delay focusing and synthetic focusing by common source method (CSM) are studied. Results show that the time delay focusing technique improves the confidence in detecting a small defect (3.8% cross-sectional area) beyond the bend, but it is unable to detect defects close to other features like welds or bends. Meanwhile, CSM is able to improve defect detection beyond and close to welding and bends. However, a reference image of a defect-free pipe is needed to detect defects near welds.
Tan, J. J., Wang, X., Guo, N., & Ho, J-H. (2016). Computational model considerations of defect detection in pipes with bends using focused guided wave. Journal of the Chinese Institute of Engineers, 39(7), 785-793. https://doi.org/10.1080/02533839.2016.1196613