Compositional modelling and crushing behaviour of MSWI bottom ash material classes

P.M.F. van de Wouw (Corresponding author), E. Loginova, M.V.A. Florea, H.J.H. Brouwers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)
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At present, in Europe, 18 million tonnes of MSWI Bottom Ash (BA) is annually stockpiled or used in low-grade applications (e.g. in road bases). Therefore, alternative applications, such as aggregate or as a cement component in concrete, are stimulated. Physical and chemical characteristics remaining after treatment, however, prevent its extensive application in building materials. Hence, knowledge is needed on the distinct properties of the material classes making up a heterogeneous BA, enabling the assessment of its characteristics and the resulting applicability. Furthermore, a user-friendly composition assessment procedure is necessary to evaluate the output of physical treatment processes. Crushing is a commonly applied treatment and its effect on the material classes comprising BA is still unknown. In this paper, the latter are identified and classified into slag, magnetic slag, glass, refractory, metals, and unburned material classes. The individual characteristics of each material class are identified and a suitable tracer for tracking these classes in heterogeneous samples is defined. Furthermore, a fast method to quantify the distribution of material classes based just on the oxide composition is developed and applied to approximate the changes in the configuration of BA through crushing. It is concluded that, although the jaw crushing of BA results in a more homogeneous distribution, beneficiation of material classes occurs and selective crushing is possible in order to improve the quality of the BA and therefore its subsequent application.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)268-282
Number of pages15
JournalWaste Management
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2020


The authors wish to express their gratitude to the NWO/TTW-foundation (project 13318, Development of eco-concretes by using industrial by-products), Mineralz, Attero, ENCI, v.d. Bosch Beton, Struyk Verwo, and CRH Europe Sustainable Concrete Centre for their provision of material, knowledge and financial support in this project, as well as to the Cement-Concrete-Immobilisates sponsor group at TU Eindhoven: Rijkswaterstaat Grote Projecten en Onderhoud, Graniet-Import Benelux, Kijlstra Betonmortel, Rijkswaterstaat Zee en Delta - District Noord, BTE, Selor, GMB, Geochem Research, Icopal, BN International, Eltomation, Knauf Gips, Hess AAC Systems, Kronos, Joma, Cement&BetonCentrum, Heros, Inashco (chronological order of joining).

FundersFunder number
Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Waterstaat
Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Waterstaat


    • Coarse MSWI bottom ash
    • Composition
    • Crushing
    • Material classes
    • Model
    • Construction Materials
    • Coal Ash
    • Incineration
    • Europe
    • Refuse Disposal
    • Solid Waste


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