For electrophysiology intervention monitoring, we intend to reconstruct 4D ultrasound (US) of structures in the beating heart from 2D transesophageal US by scanplane rotation. The image acquisition is continuous but unsynchronized to the heart rate, which results in a sparsely and irregularly sampled dataset and a spatiotemporal interpolation method is desired. Previously, we showed the potential of normalized convolution (NC) for interpolating such datasets. We explored 4D interpolation by 3 different methods: NC, nearest neighbor (NN), and temporal binning followed by linear interpolation (LTB). The test datasets were derived by slicing three 4D echocardiography datasets at random rotation angles (¿, range: 0-180°) and random normalized cardiac phase (t, range: 0-1). Four different distributions of rotated 2D images with 600, 900, 1350, and 1800 2D input images were created from all TEE sets. A 2D Gaussian kernel was used for NC and optimal kernel sizes (s¿ and st ) were found by performing an exhaustive search. The RMS gray value error (RMSE) of the reconstructed images was computed for all interpolation methods. The estimated optimal kernels were in the range of s¿ = 3.24 - 3.69°/ st = 0.045 - 0.048, s¿ = 2.79°/ st = 0.031 - 0.038, s¿ = 2.34°/ st = 0.023 - 0.026, and s¿ = 1.89°/ st = 0.021 - 0.023 for 600, 900, 1350, and 1800 input images respectively. We showed that NC outperforms NN and LTB. For a small number of input images the advantage of NC is more pronounced. © 2012 SPIE.
|Title of host publication||Medical Imaging 2012: Ultrasonic Imaging, Tomography, and Therapy, 5 February 2012 through 6 February 2012, San Diego, CA|
|Editors||J.G. Bosch, M.M. Doly|
|Place of Publication||Washington|
|Number of pages||11|
|Publication status||Published - 2012|
|Name||Proceedings of SPIE|
Haak, A., Stralen, van, M., van Burken, G., Klein, S., Pluim, J. P. W., Jong, de, N., Steen, van der, A. F. W., & Bosch, J. G. (2012). Comparison of spatiotemporal interpolators for 4D image reconstruction from 2D transesophageal ultrasound. In J. G. Bosch, & M. M. Doly (Eds.), Medical Imaging 2012: Ultrasonic Imaging, Tomography, and Therapy, 5 February 2012 through 6 February 2012, San Diego, CA  (Proceedings of SPIE; Vol. 8320). SPIE. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.905893