Collaborative business models and platforms in shared mobility transitions: the case of bikeshare integration

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Collaboration between organisations plays an increasingly fundamental role in a growing number of sectors, including Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS), and has given rise to the Collaborative Business Model (CBM). A review of literature on CBMs provides an overview of CBM interpretations, and finds that tensions between collaboration and competition, and those related to the commons, are major emerging tensions. A further review of MaaS business model literature, and a case study of three platforms attempting to deliver bikeshare-inclusive MaaS, focuses on these tensions. The means by which commons resources are made available to MaaS CBMs is found to be a significant determinant of how far these CBMs depart from conventional business model logic and morphology, in part because they determine the leverage that city governments can bring to bear on MaaS CBMs.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationBusiness Models for Sustainability Transitions
Subtitle of host publicationHow Organisations Contribute to Societal Transformation
EditorsAnnabeth Aagaard, Florian Lüdeke-Freund, Peter Wells
Place of PublicationCham
PublisherPalgrave Macmillan Ltd.
Number of pages38
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-030-77580-3
ISBN (Print)978-3-030-77579-7, 978-3-030-77582-7
Publication statusPublished - 11 Nov 2021


  • collaborative business models
  • Mobility as a Service (MaaS)
  • bikeshare
  • commons
  • platforms


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