This study investigated the effect of co-location and tactile feedback on 2D widget manipulation tasks in virtual environments. Task completion time and positioning accuracy during each task were measured for subjects under 4 situations (co-located vs no co-located and tactile feedback vs no tactile feedback). Performance results indicate that co-location and tactile feedback both significantly improve the performance of 2D widget manipulation in 3D virtual environments. Subjective results support these findings.
Kok, A. J. F., & Liere, van, R. (2004). Co-location and tactile feedback for 2D widget manipulation. In Proceedings IEEE Virtual Reality 2004, Chicago IL, USA, March 27-31, 2004 (pp. 233-234). IEEE Computer Society. https://doi.org/10.1109/VR.2004.1310085