Co-integration of an RF engergy harverster into a 2.4 GHz transceiver

J. Masuch, M. Delgado-Restituto, D. Milosevic, P.G.M. Baltus

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

35 Citations (Scopus)
2 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

This paper presents an RF energy harvester embedded in a low-power transceiver (TRX) front-end. Both the harvester and the TRX use the same antenna and operate at the same frequency of 2.4 GHz. To decouple the harvester from the TRX, different concepts are proposed regarding the transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX). To avoid loading the TX, the harvester is decoupled with an nMOS switch that can be enabled with a start-up rectifier. Concerning the RX, the decoupling mechanism relies on the nonlinear input impedance of the main RF-DC converter. The harvester also includes a supply management circuit for over-voltage protection and charging energy storage devices with a constant current or voltage. The energy harvester has been co-integrated with the low power TRX in a 130 nm CMOS process and achieves a measured peak power conversion efficiency of 15.9%. For input power levels of at least -9 dBm, it is able to charge up a supply capacitor to a regulated voltage of 1.34 V. The impact of the harvester on the TRX performance is measured with respect to an identical TRX front-end without harvester, showing little impact on the TRX performance. Both TX output power and RX noise figure are degraded by less than 0.5 dB. As an additional feature, the start-up rectifier is also used for demodulation of On-Off-Keying (OOK) signaling, which can be used as a secondary wake-up channel. Since the required area for the harvester is only 0.019 mm2 (˜ 2% of the total active TRX area), it can be added to the TRX at almost no cost.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1565-1574
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Volume48
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013

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Harvesters
Transceivers
Receivers (containers)
Overvoltage protection
Noise figure
Electric potential
Demodulation
Energy storage
Conversion efficiency
Transmitters
Capacitors
Switches
Antennas
Networks (circuits)

Cite this

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title = "Co-integration of an RF engergy harverster into a 2.4 GHz transceiver",
abstract = "This paper presents an RF energy harvester embedded in a low-power transceiver (TRX) front-end. Both the harvester and the TRX use the same antenna and operate at the same frequency of 2.4 GHz. To decouple the harvester from the TRX, different concepts are proposed regarding the transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX). To avoid loading the TX, the harvester is decoupled with an nMOS switch that can be enabled with a start-up rectifier. Concerning the RX, the decoupling mechanism relies on the nonlinear input impedance of the main RF-DC converter. The harvester also includes a supply management circuit for over-voltage protection and charging energy storage devices with a constant current or voltage. The energy harvester has been co-integrated with the low power TRX in a 130 nm CMOS process and achieves a measured peak power conversion efficiency of 15.9{\%}. For input power levels of at least -9 dBm, it is able to charge up a supply capacitor to a regulated voltage of 1.34 V. The impact of the harvester on the TRX performance is measured with respect to an identical TRX front-end without harvester, showing little impact on the TRX performance. Both TX output power and RX noise figure are degraded by less than 0.5 dB. As an additional feature, the start-up rectifier is also used for demodulation of On-Off-Keying (OOK) signaling, which can be used as a secondary wake-up channel. Since the required area for the harvester is only 0.019 mm2 (˜ 2{\%} of the total active TRX area), it can be added to the TRX at almost no cost.",
author = "J. Masuch and M. Delgado-Restituto and D. Milosevic and P.G.M. Baltus",
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Co-integration of an RF engergy harverster into a 2.4 GHz transceiver. / Masuch, J.; Delgado-Restituto, M.; Milosevic, D.; Baltus, P.G.M.

In: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 48, No. 7, 2013, p. 1565-1574.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Co-integration of an RF engergy harverster into a 2.4 GHz transceiver

AU - Masuch, J.

AU - Delgado-Restituto, M.

AU - Milosevic, D.

AU - Baltus, P.G.M.

PY - 2013

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N2 - This paper presents an RF energy harvester embedded in a low-power transceiver (TRX) front-end. Both the harvester and the TRX use the same antenna and operate at the same frequency of 2.4 GHz. To decouple the harvester from the TRX, different concepts are proposed regarding the transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX). To avoid loading the TX, the harvester is decoupled with an nMOS switch that can be enabled with a start-up rectifier. Concerning the RX, the decoupling mechanism relies on the nonlinear input impedance of the main RF-DC converter. The harvester also includes a supply management circuit for over-voltage protection and charging energy storage devices with a constant current or voltage. The energy harvester has been co-integrated with the low power TRX in a 130 nm CMOS process and achieves a measured peak power conversion efficiency of 15.9%. For input power levels of at least -9 dBm, it is able to charge up a supply capacitor to a regulated voltage of 1.34 V. The impact of the harvester on the TRX performance is measured with respect to an identical TRX front-end without harvester, showing little impact on the TRX performance. Both TX output power and RX noise figure are degraded by less than 0.5 dB. As an additional feature, the start-up rectifier is also used for demodulation of On-Off-Keying (OOK) signaling, which can be used as a secondary wake-up channel. Since the required area for the harvester is only 0.019 mm2 (˜ 2% of the total active TRX area), it can be added to the TRX at almost no cost.

AB - This paper presents an RF energy harvester embedded in a low-power transceiver (TRX) front-end. Both the harvester and the TRX use the same antenna and operate at the same frequency of 2.4 GHz. To decouple the harvester from the TRX, different concepts are proposed regarding the transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX). To avoid loading the TX, the harvester is decoupled with an nMOS switch that can be enabled with a start-up rectifier. Concerning the RX, the decoupling mechanism relies on the nonlinear input impedance of the main RF-DC converter. The harvester also includes a supply management circuit for over-voltage protection and charging energy storage devices with a constant current or voltage. The energy harvester has been co-integrated with the low power TRX in a 130 nm CMOS process and achieves a measured peak power conversion efficiency of 15.9%. For input power levels of at least -9 dBm, it is able to charge up a supply capacitor to a regulated voltage of 1.34 V. The impact of the harvester on the TRX performance is measured with respect to an identical TRX front-end without harvester, showing little impact on the TRX performance. Both TX output power and RX noise figure are degraded by less than 0.5 dB. As an additional feature, the start-up rectifier is also used for demodulation of On-Off-Keying (OOK) signaling, which can be used as a secondary wake-up channel. Since the required area for the harvester is only 0.019 mm2 (˜ 2% of the total active TRX area), it can be added to the TRX at almost no cost.

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JO - IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits

JF - IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits

SN - 0018-9200

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