This study explored children's participation in recreational (physical) activities and the extent to which this participation was influenced by individual and household socio-demographics and characteristics of the social and physical environment. Travel and activity diaries were used to collect data on out-of-home recreational activities for a random sample of 4,293 children in primary schools in the Netherlands. These data were investigated in relation to measures describing the social and physical living environment. Specifically, a Bayesian belief network was proposed because it derives and represents simultaneously all direct and indirect relationships between the selected variables. Results indicated that participation in various types of recreational activities was directly related to the socio-economic status of the household, the perceived safety of the neighborhood, the size of agricultural area in the neighborhood, travel distance, and day of the week. Planners and designers are recommended to find a good land use mix, and specifically make sure that they focus their attention on safety issues, as these factors stimulate children's participation in recreational physical activities.