This manuscript reports on the application of chemometric methods for the development of an optimized microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD). As an example, we applied chemometric methods for both device optimization and data processing of results of a colorimetric uric acid assay. Box-Behnken designs (BBD) were utilized for the optimization of the device geometry and the amount of thermal inkjet-deposited assay reagents, which affect the assay performance. Measurement outliers were detected in real time by partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of scanned images. The colorimetric assay mechanism is based on the on-device formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) through the interaction of uric acid, ammonia, and poly(vinyl alcohol) with silver ions under mild basic conditions. The yellow color originating from visible light absorption by localized surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs can be detected by the naked eye or, more quantitatively, with a simple flat-bed scanner. Under optimized conditions, the linearity of the calibration curve ranges from 0.1-5 × 10 -3 mol L -1 of uric acid with a limit of detection of 33.9 × 10 -6 mol L -1 and a relative standard of deviation 4.5% (n = 3 for determination of 5.0 × 10 -3 mol L -1 uric acid). Graphical abstract A chemometrics-assisted microfluidic paper-based analytical device was developed as a low-cost and rapid platform for the determination of uric acid (UA). The detection method is based on the chemical interaction of UA, ammonia, and polyvinyl alcohol under mild basic condition with silver ions inducing formation of yellow silver nanoparticles (AgNPs).
- Box–Behnken design
- Microfluidic paper-based analytical device
- Partial least squares discriminant analysis
- Response surface methodology
- Silver nanoparticles
- Uric acid