Characterizing and comparing innovation systems by different 'modes' of knowledge production : a proximity approach

S. Hardeman, K. Frenken, Z.O. Nomaler, A.L.J Wal, ter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)
225 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Though the concept of innovation systems has become influential in both academia and policy-making, an analytical approach to understanding innovation systems is still lacking. In particular, there is no analytical framework to measure ‘Mode 1’ and ‘Mode 2’ knowledge production. We propose a framework based on the proximity concept. Mode 1 and Mode 2 knowledge production are characterized by collaborations with cognitive, organizational, social, institutional and geographical proximity, and distance, respectively. Using a gravity model approach we apply our framework to the case of type 2 diabetes research and provide a characterization of the global innovation system and a comparative analysis of the North American and European innovation systems. Our main results hold that although collaborative research on type 2 diabetes generally follows a logic of proximity and hence is not characterized as Mode 2, important differences and similarities exist between the North American and European innovation systems.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)530-548
JournalScience and Public Policy
Volume42
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

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