In this concluding paper the guest editors reflect on the contents of this special issue, and give some suggestions for future use of the CST framework. An interesting disclosure is that in chaos-and-complexity research the unit of measurement is not the individual human being, but the collective (i.e. dyad, team, or group), seen as a holon. Another important observation is that human interactions – ranging from the individual to the collective levels – are the "carriers of learning" in CST. In order to guide future research with CST, ten levels of abstraction are delineated which were borrowed from research on general design theory.