The transpirational cooling of vegetation as a measure to mitigate outdoor air temperatures was investigated for a street canyon in the city center of Arnhem, the Netherlands for the meteorological conditions of an afternoon hour on a hot summer day during a heat wave with wind of speed 5.1 ms-1 at 10 m above ground and direction along the canyon. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations with locally applied vegetation in the street, i.e. avenue trees, facade greening, roof greening and all three combined, were performed. The 3D steady-state Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations were closed by the realizable k-e turbulence model extended with source and sink terms to represent the effects of vegetation on air flow. By specifying a cooling power term in the energy equation, the transpirational cooling by vegetation was accounted for. The strongest cooling by a single vegetative measure was obtained with the avenue-trees with mean and maximum temperature reductions at pedestrian level of 0.43°C and 1.6°C, respectively. Facade greening resulted in rather small changes with mean and maximum reductions of 0.04°C and 0.3°C, respectively. For roof greening no noticeable reductions inside the canyon were found. In the case of a combination of all vegetative measures, cooling in terms of spatial distribution and intensity overall resembled a linear superposition of those of the vegetative measures solely applied with 0.52°C mean and 2.0°C maximum temperature reduction. Overall, the cooling was restricted to the vicinity of the vegetative measures, i.e. up to a distance of a few meters.
Gromke, C. B., Blocken, B., Janssen, W. D., Merema, B., van Hooff, T., & Timmermans, H. J. P. (2015). CFD analysis of transpirational cooling by vegetation : case study for specific meteorological conditions during a heat wave in Arnhem, Netherlands. Building and Environment, 83, 11-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2014.04.022