Dwindling supplies of fossil resources and the negative impact on the environment associated with their combustion is spurring the exploitation of alternative renewable resources for obtaining fuels and chemicals. Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant source of renewable carbon. Its conversion into industrial chemicals is hampered by the lack of catalytic systems able to process this feedstock into usable products in an economically viable manner, among other reasons. Yet, significant progress has been made by employing lessons learned from the field of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis for the production of essential chemicals in the past. In this chapter, we will discuss the application of state-of-the-art heterogeneous and homogeneous catalyst technology with the potential to process lignocellulose to valuable platform molecules.