Bikeway provision and bicycle commuting: City-level empirical findings from the US

Qiyao Yang, Jun Cai (Corresponding author), Tao Feng, Zhengying Liu, Harry Timmermans

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1 Citation (Scopus)


The growing worldwide awareness of the significant benefits of bicycling as an urban transport mode has aroused great interest in exploring the role that bikeways play in promoting utilitarian bicycling. However, few studies assess the contribution of citywide bikeway provision with the inclusion of all facility types and differentiation of facility utilities. This study provides new evidence by evaluating the collective effects of bikeway kilometers per square kilometer, bikeway kilometers per 10,000 population, and low-stress bikeway proportion on the bicycle-commuting share in 28 US cities between 2005 and 2017. Using linear panel regression models, we found that the expansion of citywide bikeway infrastructure positively influences the share of commute trips by bicycle. The results also indicated that the proportion of low-stress bikeways has a stronger impact on the bicycling-to-work share than bikeway kilometers per 10,000 population, while the impact of bikeway kilometers per square kilometer ranks last. These findings may aid policy makers and planners in formulating sound city-level bikeway policies favoring sustainable urban transportation scenarios.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3113
Number of pages15
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2 Mar 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, grant number 51778099, and the China Scholarship Council, grant number 201806060042.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • Bicycling to work
  • City level
  • Collective effects
  • Panel analysis
  • Provision of bikeway infrastructure


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